E-learning application according to the flipped classroom model towards approaching the fourth industrial revolution - Vo Thi Kim Loan

Thông tin trích dẫn:
Vo Thi Kim Loan (2022), E-learning application according to the flipped classroom model towE-learning application according to the flipped classroom model towards approaching the fourth industrial revolutionards approaching the fourth industrial revolution, Universum: Psychology and Education, №7(97), DOI: 10.32743/UniPsy.2022.97.7.14015, ISSN 2311-6099. 


DOI - 10.32743/UniPsy.2022.97.7.14015


The explosion and increasingly strong development of the Internet and information technology has not only a strong impact on the development of professions but it has also been and is profoundly changing the face of world education in general and Vietnamese education particular. E-Learning is considered a breakthrough that changes the world education and is an indispensable training in the coming years of universities. The article presents the achievements of E-learning in the field of education, from which the author proposes the process of applying E-learning according to the flipped classroom model in the teaching and learning process in order to train citizens to learn to approach the fourth industrial revolution.


Стремительное и интенсивное развитие Интернета и информационных технологий оказало сильное влияние не только на развитие профессий, но и кардинально изменило облик мирового образования в целом, и вьетнамского образования в частности. Дистанционное обучение считается крупным достижением, которое изменило мировое образование, и является неотъемлемой частью обучения в университетах на протяжении нескольких лет. В статье представлены результаты дистанционного обучения в области профессионального образования, на основе которых автор предлагает методы использования дистанционного обучения во время образовательного процесса в соответствии с технологией «перевернутый класс» для обучения граждан в условиях четвертой промышленной революции.

Keywords: E- learning; flipped classroom, innovative teaching and learning methods.

Ключевые слова: дистанционное обучение; перевернутый класс; инновационные методы преподавания и обучения.

1. Introduction

E-Learning is no longer strange in countries with developed education in the world. However, in Vietnam, E-Learning is still quite new, has only been interested in and developed in recent years. Besides, with the strong development of broadband services, improving the quality of Internet connections is an advantage for E-learning development. For that reason, a series of universities and organizations around the world have focused on developing an online teaching system to maximize the effectiveness of training.

E-Learning used to be likened to a model of “Flipped Classroom”. If the traditional classroom model only limits learners to the level of basic knowledge acquisition, then “Flipped Classroom” will reverse the traditional learning sequence, where learners listen to lectures while at home, exercises will be done in class. Class time is used for interactive activities and extends from the underlying content. When going to class, lecturers do not waste time to explain contents in videos and focus on activities such as learning about case studies, group discussions, and simulation exercises.

2. Research overview on the development of E-learning

From 1984 to 1993, the introduction of Windows 3.1 operating system, Macintosh computers, powerpoint software, and other multimedia tools opened a new era: Multimedia era. These tools allow the creation of lectures with integrated images and sounds based on CBT (Computer Based Training) technology. Lessons are delivered to learners via CD-ROM or floppy disk. However, the guidance of lecturers in this stage is very little

In the period 1994 - 1999, when Web technology was invented, training service providers began to study how to improve educational methods with this technology. Email Programs, Web, Browser, Media player, low speed Audio/video transmission along with Web-enabled languages like HTML and Java started to become popular and changed the face of multimedia training. At this stage, the role of the lecturer was gradually shown through the means of learning.

In the period 2000 - 2005, advanced technologies including Java and IP network applications, network access technology and Internet bandwidth were enhanced and advanced. Web design technologies became a revolution in education today. Low-cost, high-quality and effective training has become the wave of E-learning, and now we are in the midst of this wave.

In terms of being a new educational model in the information technology age, most universities around the world now consider e-learning as a strategic asset so that education can be accessible to all people. Along with the general trend of the world, in Vietnam also has begun to appear universities, researchers looking for models and solutions to improve the effectiveness of E-Learning through the model of Flipped classroom.

Koohang et al. (2009) have proposed a learning model in an E-learning environment based on constructivist learning theory [1]. This model includes the following three basic elements: (1) Designing learning activities; (2) Evaluation of the learning process; (3) The role of the lecturer or instructor. The design of learning activities includes coordination, cooperation, problem solving. Elements of learning assessment include lecturer assessment, group assessment, and individual self-assessment. The role of the instructor is to train, guide, advise, provide feedback, and assess student learning.

Authors Nguyen Quoc Vu and Le Thi Minh Thanh (2017) present a study on the applicability of teaching and learning with the “Flipped classroom” model in teaching a digital subject. The analysis shows that the “Flipped classroom” can be seen as a model of classroom organization in blended learning [3]. The authors have devised the classroom implementation process, and also tested the flipped classroom for the digital subject. Studies and survey results show that the application of “Flipped classroom” to teach digital subject not only creates learning excitement for students, improves student learning outcomes, but also helps students develop creative thinking ability.

A group of Authors Tran Thanh Dien and Nguyen Thai Nghe (2017) introduced E-learning and popular models in E-learning, thereby presenting the application of E-learning to support teaching and learning at Can Tho University [7]. The authors present a course on the E-learning system (Dokeos) represented through 3 areas: the author, the interaction and the administration. Since then, the authors have made suggestions for E-learning teaching to be more and more effective.

The study of the group of authors Lo & Hwang (2018) sheds light on three possible directions for future studies of this instructional approach, including (1) longitudinal studies, (2) examining its effects on different learning objectives, and (3) incorporating gamification into flipped courses. Besides, the authors also provided a descriptive framework for flipped classroom interventions comprising four dimensions: (1) research background, (2) course design, (3) course activities, and (4) outcome of interventions. In the course design section, the authors also suggest activities before learning, while learning and after learning [2].

The group of authors Pham & Tran  (2020) have pointed out that one of the factors affecting the acceptance of E-learning by Vietnamese students is the course content and design [5]. The results of this study also show that the success of the e-education system in Vietnam depends mainly on support services from schools. Since then, the authors propose a solution to exploit and use E-learning effectively, which is that university administrators need to pay more attention to providing support services, especially technical support for students and lecturers.

3. The role of E – learning

The E-learning system plays an important role in sharing and transferring knowledge, and is gradually changing the learning model and the way of accessing knowledge of many potential audiences such as: pupils, students… in the current period. This system brings many benefits to both learners and lecturers such as flexibility, updating and cost savings. At the same time, online training is making learning more fascinating and interesting.

The role of E-learning for learners
Changing the way of learning as well as the role of learners, learners play a central and active role in the process of occupying their knowledge. E-learning is suitable for many learning objects in which each learner has a different learning style and approach to knowledge resources, learners can study according to their personal timetable, at a pace depending on their ability and can choose appropriate learning contents, so it will expand the training objects a lot.

E-learning creates an active learning environment and learners can study anywhere, just need to be connected to the Internet. This helps learners reduce learning time and increase learning results.

Helping increase student participation, because in class, the lecturer will no longer lecture but will listen to students to ask questions about lesson contents that students do not understand, explain to students to understand them. After that, students can participate in exchange, discussion and debate activities on more in-depth contents or practical situations to apply theory to solve them. This model helps students not to passively listen to the lecture but to participate directly in the lesson.

Creating attractiveness for learners with multimedia lectures with sound, vivid images, animation effects, highly educational games, simulation lessons: virtual lab, virtual library, etc… has high interaction between learners and the program, direct conversation over the network. This makes learners interested and passionate about the process of acquiring knowledge and they always find it convenient because of their flexible time, low investment costs for learning and especially to be equipped with necessary knowledge to serve the learning process and future work smoothly and quickly.

Enhancing teamwork skills. Although students view lectures and tests on the E-learning system individually, group work is an integral part of group discussion in class. Before going to class, lecturers will usually upload discussion questions or real situations or topics that require groups to prepare for class presentations to the E - learning system. Groups have to regularly work in groups before going to class such as group meetings, assign work to each member to prepare, then come to class to discuss in groups to agree on answers or present their group discussion before the class.

The role of E - learning with schools and lecturers:
Promoting an open education which helps learners access multi-dimensional information quickly, shortening all distances, narrowing all spaces, saving time. Due to multi-dimensional information, educational activities must necessarily be more democratic, limit one-way imposition, and have better freedom of thought on learners, so that independent thinking develops, leading to the development capacity of students.

Helping to renovate comprehensive education, changing the education system from mainly transmitting knowledge to developing learners’ capacity, reducing lectures, increasing self-study, implementing “teaching less, learning more”, by ways to help learners approach methods and ways of self-study and problem solving.

Instructors can integrate many information communication tools such as lecture clips, online exchanges, and discussions, thereby helping to improve teaching quality. The quality of education depends a lot on the capacity of lecturers, and lecturers can reach many learners at the same time in many places, regardless of distance. Helping to remove geographical boundaries, qualifications, regional cultures, ages, even languages, etc..., contributing to creating a learning society and lifelong learning.

Offering instructions to each individual. In this model, lecturers can track each student’s learning. The interaction of lecturers and students is continuous and personalized and the learning speed and level of learning depends on the ability of the students and contents can be accessed at any time. Instructors know the level of understanding of each student and will provide appropriate support for him/her.

Focus on class discussion. In the flipped classroom model, the lecturer does not have to lecture the entire lesson but only answer students’ questions about lesson contents, then the rest of the time will be spent on the above discussion in class, thereby avoiding the passive learning of students.

Giving lecturers creative freedom. The lecturer does not have to teach the theoretical content repeatedly for different classes, but only needs to record his/her lecture once and send it to students before class for students, instead the lecturer focuses on classroom activities. Depending on different subjects, lecturers will flexibly organize classes and offer appropriate discussion contents. Lecturers will have more time to develop teaching contents, improve professional qualifications without having to repeat the basic contents.

In addition to the positive factors brought by E-learning, there are still some existing problems that need to be resolved as follows: learners are not familiar with online learning, only familiar with traditional classrooms; lack interaction between lecturers and students when livestreaming because students’ expressions cannot be seen; learners have little opportunity to interact with each other to share and discuss together; specific industries such as architecture, online learning will not stimulate the creativity of learners; requiring a strong Internet connection; The training unit must invest a source of funds for the effective operation of the E-learning system

4. Applying E-learning according to the flipped classroom model towards approaching the fourth industrial revolution

4.1. Flipped classroom course design

Course design is a necessary job for lecturers and learners to be active in their own activities. Depending on the situation of each unit, each lecturer can offer different designs. In particular, the contents that need to be emphasized in the design of the course include:

Building resources for the course. This is considered a repository of learning materials to serve the training process. It is updated and adjusted regularly during the training period. Course resources include: detailed outline; lecture content; lecture powerpoint; lecture clips; study materials (paper learning materials or ebooks); multiple choice review questions; discussion topics; 5 minute clips; case studies; games and references.

The degree of reversal of the class will be designed according to the requirements of the training unit, the expected learning outcome and the specifics of the subject. For example, Peterson (2016) had a 45-minute video lecture before class and had no time in class to give a face-to-face inversion in the flipped course of his Statistics [4]. In contrast, students in the flipped course of Calculus by Scott et al. (2016) was only required to watch a video 20 minutes before class. The rest of the time is spent working directly with their lecturer. As the instructor and course designer, Scott et al. (2016) commented that some topics are easy to learn through videos while others are too complicated for learners [6].

Course planning. Plans will be made detailing the allocation of pre-course and classroom materials, as well as the timing of assessment tests…

4.2. Course activities

Course activities are shown in 3 stages: before the course, during the course and after the course.

Before the course: when assigned to be in charge of the course, the lecturer will be able to create a class on the system. The lecturer will then introduce the resources into the classroom as planned, create announcements and discussion forums for the course, and create forums guiding ways of learning for students to avoid confusion.

During the course: teaching and learning activities take place according to the plan set out earlier. At this time, students will actively study and check the results on the E-learning system with the lecturer’s guidance.

After the course: there should be a small survey for students to assess the level of acceptance of the method used by the lecturer in the course, advantages and disadvantages during the course...

4.3. Course report

The subject report is the presentation of information about the actual teaching and learning process of the subject. Assessments on the level of achievement of the subject’s learning outcomes, the experiences and suggestions of the lecturers after teaching the subject. Contents of the course report include:

Information about the subject: subject name, class number, time of each class, number of learners in each class, lecturer in charge of theory for each class, number of groups of exercises, practice.

Teaching process: In the first course report, the lecturer should present the practical experience of implementing the outline, teaching methods used in each lecture, assessment methods that have been used, rubrics used for evaluation. In the next subject report, the lecturer should present changes (contents, approaches, teaching methods...) as compared to the previous report, the implementation of the recommendations in the previous report or explain why these recommendations have not been implemented.

Assessment results: this section will summarize the results of the course, including assessing the level of achievement of students according to each learning outcomes.

Experience and suggestions: From the results of the subject statistics, combined with the survey after the course, the lecturer will present the experiences that can be shared and suggest changes for next classes of the subject to improve quality.

5. Conclusion

The application of E-learning in the flipped classroom model is the process of converging all research results of traditional teaching and learning methods in the direction of approaching the fourth industrial revolution. In flipped learning, learners actively control their own learning, can pause, rewind, watch videos and discuss with friends. Instead of listening to lecturers’ lectures, learners can spend a lot of time in cooperative and exchange activities. By increasing the number of hours of practice discussion in class, students will develop their communication skills and expressing their thoughts. Students are regularly checked and evaluated by the lecturer, so that learners can know the missing and weak knowledge. The online learning model also allows lecturers to accurately assess learners’ abilities through discussion and tests on forums. At the same time, increase the interaction between lecturers and students through online discussion.

Thus, in the spirit of building an education system that ensures all citizens have lifelong learning, with the values ​​of contribution that the E-learning application in the flipped classroom model brings, this is an optimal method we need to apply to teaching in universities and colleges today in order to equip students with initiative, active creativity, and to form essential skills to improve knowledge reception results to meet the requirements of reality in accordance with the spirit of the Resolution of the 10th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, which affirmed: “Gradually transforming the current educational model into an open education model – a learning society with a lifelong learning system, continuous training, and connections between different levels of study and disciplines; building and developing a learning system for everyone and flexible forms of learning and practice, meeting the needs of regular learning; creating many different possibilities and opportunities for learners, ensuring social justice in education” in line with the model of “learning citizens” in the era of the fourth industrial revolution.


Koohang, A., Riley, L., Smith, T., & Schreurs, J. E-learning and constructivism: From theory to application. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects. 2009. No 5(1). Pp. 91-109.
Lo, C. K., & Hwang, G. J. How to advance our understanding of flipped learning: Directions and a descriptive framework for future research // Knowledge Management & E-Learning. 2018. No 10(4). Pp. 441–454.

Nguyen Quoc Vu & Le Thi Minh Thanh. Applying “flipped classroom” model in teaching “digital” to improve students’ capacity of creative thinking // Ho Chi Minh City University of Education Journal of Science. 2017. Vol 14, No 1 (2017). Pp. 16-28

Peterson, D. J. The flipped classroom improves student achievement and course satisfaction in a statistics course: A quasi-experimental study // Teaching of Psychology. 2016. No 43(1). Pp. 10–15

Pham, Q. T., & Tran, T. P. The acceptance of e-learning systems and the learning outcome of students at universities in Vietnam // Knowledge Management & E-Learning. 2020. No 12(1). Pp. 63–84.

Scott, C. E., Green, L. E., & Etheridge, D. L. A comparison between flipped and lecture-based instruction in the calculus classroom // Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education. 2016. No 8(2). Pp. 252–264.

Tran Thanh Dien & Nguyen Thai Nghe. E-learning application models for supporting teaching and learning // Can Tho University Journal of Science. 2017. Special issue of Information Technology. Pp. 103-111.

Information about the authors
Vo Thi Kim Loan
PhD in Economics, lecturer Faculty Of Basic Science, Van Lang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Информация об авторах
Во Тхи Ким Лоан
канд. экон. наук, преподаватель, Факультет Фундаментальных Наук, Университет Ван Ланга, Вьетнам, г. Хошимин

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